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for optimal performance


VK69 is designed specifically for the final pass(es) of double absorption plants. In the lean SO2 gas environment after the inter-pass absorption tower, the unique VK69 formulation offers unmatched high activity throughout the entire operating temperature range. This affords existing plants the opportunity to greatly reduce SO2 emissions and/or increase production rates. For new or revamped plants, SO2 emissions of under 50 ppm are possible. Using cesium as a promoter, VK69’s extremely low ignition or “strike” temperature will significantly reduce pre-heat time and improve start-up performance. VK69 is manufactured in a unique 9 mm Daisy-shape. The high surface area contributes to the high activity in this gas environment and the high void-fraction ensures a low pressure drop and good dust tolerance.


  • possibility for over 50% reduction in SO2 emission from existing double absorption plants
  • possibility for significantly increased production without increasing SO2 emissions
  • less than 50 ppm of SO2 emissions possible from new or revamped plants--low ignition temperature for faster and cleaner start-ups
  • long lifetime and low screening losses industrially proven since 1996

Low ignition temperature

VK59 and VK69 have an exceptionally low ignition or “strike” temperatures of 320-330°C (610-625°F) that offer new possibilities for faster and cleaner start-ups. Autothermal restarts can be accomplished after a significantly longer idle time without the use of pre-heat.

9 mm Daisy

VK69 is produced in the unique 9 mm Daisy-shape. In the low SO2 environment, after the intermediate absorption tower, the 9 mm size and Daisy-shape combination gives 30% extra activity compared to a 12 mm Daisy-shape, in part due to the higher surface area. Also, the Daisy-shape ensures remarkably low pressure drop. The high surface area of the 9 mm Daisy contributes to the high activity, and the high void fraction ensures a low pressure drop.

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Maninder Jit Singh
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